The Doctrine of Discovery refers to a system of beliefs and 15th century Papal Bulls that gave permission for Christian colonizers to ‘i nvade, capture, subdue, and vanquish all pagans and Saracens’, who were seen as enemies of Christ. Contact. The discovery doctrine, also called doctrine of discovery, provided a philosophical framework for Christian explorers, to lay claim to territories uninhabited by Christians.Under this belief, title to lands lay with the government whose subjects travelled to and occupied a territory whose inhabitants were not subjects of a European Christian monarch. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Similar bulls followed, dividing the “New World” between Portugal and Castilian Spain, and eventually setting in motion the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The discovery doctrine or doctrine of discovery is a legal term. I would refer to ours as Truth and Conciliation. Every informed voice will help in the struggle. As a Native American Registered Landscape Architect we wrestle with development on the land and hopefully strive to embrace what the eye cannot see. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. The ecological systems many of us are working hard to support have been altered heavily through European settlement. And those progeny were among our first clients. After the Declaration of Independence (1776) starts with “All men are created equal,” thirty lines below, Indigenous people are referred to as “merciless Indian savages”. The Doctrine of Discovery: Unmasking the Domination Code (2015), directed by Sheldon P. Wolfchild and narrated by Buffy Sainte-Marie. Start by reading some of the literature by Native authors. If you’re into podcasts, Rebecca Nagle’s “This Land” is a must-listen. I will incorporate these tips! Fax: 1-202-898-1185, Copyright 2010 – 2021 Johnson v McIntosh . I wish I had an answer to the question about redefining market capitalism. NLG Webinar: "Dismantling the Doctrine of Discovery: Decolonization & Indigenous Self-Determination" PRC/EHRC Webinar Series via Zoom: Thurs. While the doctrine of discovery is closely related to the concept of terra nullius (land belonging to no one), it is a conceptual tool that has been used even for lands that clearly did belong to others, as discussed below. list of suggestions for working with Native communities, From Slums to Sky Gardens – Singapore’s Public Housing Success, Performance-Based Plant Selection for Bioretention, Required Reading for Landscape Architects, Skills for Success in Landscape Architecture, Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS). If I am reading correctly, my understanding is that you’re, in the way that you are able, ultimately trying to make right the wrongs done by early European settlers in what we call America. I was already there. I propose a national dialogue on race, gender and class, on par with the Truth and Reconciliation commissions that took place in South Africa, Rwanda and Canada. The Doctrine of Discovery emanates from a series of Papal Bulls (formal statements from the Pope) and extensions, originating in the 1400s. Thursday, June 25, 2020. Sometimes the change took the form of mass deforestation for timber and agriculture. Remember that most of our neighborhoods and even our parks were conceived as segregated spaces until fairly recently. While most situate its relevance in the historical … Support efforts in your area. Location: Online. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. ‘Discovery’ buttressed the idea that land is a resource to be used, an investment. This judgment became the basis for the Indian Removal Act of 1830, in which thousands of Native Americans were forcefully marched away from their homelands. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! In 1823, Justice John Marshall’s Johnson v. M’Intosh ruling said it this way: “…discovery gave title to the government by whose subjects, or by whose authority, it was made…which title might be consummated by possession…the character and religion of [the original] inhabitants afforded an apology for considering them as a people over whom the superior genius of Europe might claim an ascendency.” In other words, finders keepers, as long as the original owners were perceived as pagans. What if landscape architects did something similar in articles and promotional materials about our projects? Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012). But for the most part, students don’t learn about the mechanics of land theft—whether at the grade school level or in most landscape architecture programs. In these countries, Christian Europeans assumed that they held sovereign, property, and commercial rights over the indigenous peoples under the ‘legal authority’ of the Doctrine. After they shrugged off their own status as colonial subjects, U.S. settlers relied on a distinction between “Christians” and “heathens” to justify further expansion into Indian territory. Dates: Thursday August 6, 13, and 20, 2020. 198) Your spirit needs to be connected to begin with. Well written and presented. Decolonizing Museums: Representing Native America in National and Tribal Museums. About Overview. In the 19th century SCOTUS ruled that land titles were based on the Doctrine of Discovery and that the US Constitution was not meant to protect African Americans. What firm do you work with? The printed Latin text can be accessed here. Later, Protestant colonizers found their own mandate for colonization in the Bible. Thanks for your comments. The Doctrine of Discovery educational resource, is lovingly maintained by Indigenous Values Initiative and the American Indian Law Alliance.It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.. Keep up the great work! Preliminary Study Shows ‘Doctrine of Discovery’ Legal Construct Historical Root for Ongoing Violations of Indigenous Peoples’ Rights, Permanent Forum Told ... 25 November 2020. According to the Thirteenth Amendment, slavery is legal in prison and in 2020 the Minneapolis police department publicly lynched George Floyd. At 2020 Fall Interim Session NYM learned about the Doctrine of Discovery (DoD) and approved this minute: The Autumn 2020 Interim Session of NYM renounces the Doctrine of Discovery. ... but 2020 lost its balance. Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window). Put indigenous connection to the land we live on at the forefront. When you visit the website of the Kluge-Ruhe Aboriginal Art Collection, the intro page thanks the Monacan People on whose traditional land the museum is located. More than 500 million indigenous peoples around the globe live today with the effects of the Doctrine's oppressive racism. ( Log Out /  Whatever form your practice takes, it ultimately involves land. European descendants benefit from a violent history of land grabbing and genocide that was justified by patriotism and religion. Considering that we have databases to find out exactly what plants are native to any given region, we should be able to construct a similar knowledge base to understand who the displaced human residents are. ( Log Out /  Dismantling the Doctrine of Discovery Coalition Autumn 2020 Newsletter DDOD Coalition hires first staff member, Katerina Friesen Reports and Video from the Mother Earth's Pandemic conference Announcing our New Indigenous Repair Partner - Makoce Ikikcupi Annual report for 2020 Announcing Dismantling the Doctrine of Discovery Campaign for Oak Flats Reparative Justice … Doctrine of Discovery: “European nations acquired title to the lands they “discovered” and Indigenous inhabitants lost their natural right to that land after Europeans had arrived and claimed it.” (quoted from Buying American from the Indians in An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States, pg. The fact that the United States has monuments, history books and proclamations referring to Christopher Columbus as the ‘discoverer of America’ reveals the implicit racial bias; that Native people specifically and people of color in general, are not fully human. Do you think that if we redefine market capitalism it can coexist with the reality that humans are connected with the land and vice-versa? It defined the political boundaries we work within, and it influences how the land is used, its ecology, and our attitudes toward owning it—whether or not we’re aware of the doctrine’s existence. Over time, the ‘advanced civilization’ nourished by extractive technologies and market capitalism has resulted in industrial-scale pollution of water and air, and poisoned people, animals and plants with toxic and radioactive chemicals. These days, most people agree that not everyone benefited from the process of U.S. colonization. This same theology formed an international legal structure that continues to dispossess Indigenous Peoples of their land. The patterns of oppression that continue to dispossess Indigenous Peoples of… But we can also offer our expertise at a smaller scale. Listen. ( Log Out /  You’re exactly right that these basic historical facts are rarely discussed, especially not in fields of study involving land ownership in North America. 1-888-999-2752 (Toll Free) It means that if a country was not under the control of a king who was from Europe and Christian, then any European Christian country could take control of the land.The discovery doctrine ignores any claim to … They imagined themselves as bringing salvation to native souls and making a barren wilderness fruitful. As recently as 2005, the US Supreme Court referenced the Doctrine of Discovery in a case regarding indigenous rights and land titles. Try to honor ways of thinking that do not see humans as separate from the land, and move away from seeing land as a commodity wherever possible. Title: Mother Earth’s Pandemic: The Doctrine of Discovery. The American Society of Landscape Architects She created a list of suggestions for working with Native communities, the most important of which involve showing up and talking with people face-to-face. Certainly, we can sign petitions to make sure sacred spaces such as Bears Ears National Monument are not sacrificed to corporate greed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999). Until we remove the racism, sexism and white supremacy from our foundations, until we actually abolish slavery and until we remove the Doctrine of Discovery as the legal precedent for land titles, We the People will never mean #AllThePeople. Zoé Edgecomb, ASLA, is a landscape architect and visual artist practicing in Charlottesville, VA. She is currently working on a project called “UnNatural Law” exploring beliefs and ideas about land in the context of colonization. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Last month ... Mark Charles April 14, 2020 Mark Charles, Navajo, Independent candidate for POTUS, Je Biden, Donald Trump, Mashpee Wampanoag, Reservation, Doctrine of Discovery, 2020 Election. Article VI of the United States Constitution states that treaties “shall be the supreme law of the land.”, Paid for by The Committee to Elect Mark Charles for President. Let us consider how the Doctrine of Discovery has formed our thoughts and understandings. I give you the Doctrine of Discovery. Landscape architects involved in historic preservation are often well-versed in permitting processes and the bureaucracy of building on historic sites. Here in Central Virginia, the Monacan Nation is fighting a project to build a pumping station on the site of their historic capital, Rassawek. If you have any questions, comments, or … And ‘Discovery’ shaped the land. Plymouth 400th Remembrance at GA 2020. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Lands already inhabited cannot be discovered. After the murder of George Floyd in the spring of 2020, the US had a very public dialogue regarding the issues of systemic racism, institutionalized white supremacy and criminal justice reform. As we work toward environmental justice, we can learn from Native landscape architects and students, as the colonists would have been wise to learn from the people they called savages. Posts tagged Doctrine of Discovery Trump and Biden are Peddling Nostalgia, and that's a Problem. All Rights Reserved The kings and queens of England borrowed the Popes’ religious language to grant tracts of land they had never visited. Landscape architects can start by informing ourselves. With the help of the series of bulls and court decisions making up the Doctrine of Discovery, the idea that Christian conquerors had a right to occupy and own Indigenous lands became embedded in the national consciousness. Wealth, embodied in land and other assets, became concentrated among white settlers and their progeny. Dismantling the Doctrine of Discovery Annual Gathering and Conference. A realization or ah ha moment in my formative years of learning the discipline of what is a landscape architect, I came to realize that they are trying to teach me to be “native” or an indian. Discovery was used as legal and moral justification for colonial dispossession of sovereign Indigenous Nations, including First Nations in what is now Canada. The Doctrine of Discovery It is our intention that this study guide will be used with the presentations from “Mother Earth’s Pandemic” to direct discussions about the Doctrine of Christian Discovery and Domination in your religious or community groups. In 2020 SCOTUS ruled that any time the US Congress can “muster the will” they can disestablish reservation lands and break treaties with Native nations. Learn how your comment data is processed. The American Society of Landscape Architects Washington, DC 20001-3736, Phone: 202-898-2444 The colonialist Doctrine of Discovery is at the root of unequal distribution in the United States, and for that reason it’s essential that we know about it. The “Doctrine of Discovery” is a philosophical and legal framework dating to the 15th century that gave Christian governments moral and legal rights to invade and seize Indigenous lands and dominate Indigenous Peoples. Good to hear from you Carl! Times: 6-9 PM EST each Thursday, followed by caucuses/small group discussions. What Does the Doctrine of Discovery Have to Do With Environmental Justice? Dispossessing the Wilderness: Indian Removal and the Making of the National Parks. Change ). Wow! I don’t have Native heritage, but the more I learn, the more I realize how strong a precedent Native American, as well as many other Indigenous peoples’ thoughts about land are for my own. As our Poet Laureate Joy Harjo has said of her fellow Native Americans, “America does not have a story without us, yet we are often denied a place in the larger narrative. Realize that while empirical thinking and market capitalism are dominant modes of thinking, they’re not the only ones, and quite possibly not the best ones. Programming from GA 2020, designed in partnership with Indigenous leaders in the Northeast and beyond to explore how to co-exist in right relationship ... Doctrine of Discovery and Rights of Indigenous Peoples. This chapter discusses Indigenous conceptualizations of land, legal orders, and governmental authorities, and the problems of re-constructing history when not including indigenous peoples in the dialogue. The first set of documents that would compose the Doctrine of Discovery. The nature of this topic interests me. The Doctrine of Discovery (i.e., making known) would allow for European Monarchs, with authorization from the Christian Church – Example of a Papal Bull (Indigenous Values Initiative, 2020). We can tell more complete stories. Obey us. The Doctrine of Discovery allowed Europeans to decide the fate of most of the land. Tommy Orange takes us off the reservation and into urban Oakland in his novel There There. I applaud that proactivity! Brenda Williams, ASLA, a historic preservation landscape architect with Quinn Evans Architects, has collaborated with Tribal Nations on numerous projects involving culturally significant sites. Their story is the one most of us learned and accepted. Tweaking our attitudes a little bit might even make the profession more attractive to the people whose land this has been for millennia. Thank you for the invitation to read this and comment! On June 18, 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull, Dum Diversas. This is all fairly common knowledge among the two percent of American citizens who are also Native American. Native Americans are real, living people, closer by than you might think, and not always on the ‘res.’ For a wide-ranging meditation on landscape architecture’s relationship with indigeneity, read Rod Barnett’s article “Designing Indian Country.”. Speak to a wider audience. To really understand the American landscape, you need to know about the Doctrine of Discovery. We can do our best to ensure that Indigenous people still have access to important places and cultural resources, such as plants critical to material production and traditional diet, and habitat essential to animals who are considered part of the community. The ELCA has repudiated the Doctrine of Discovery, but this is only a start. But unless you’re Native American, it’s likely you’ve never heard of “Discovery.” ASLA’s position on environmental justice calls on us to address unequal distribution of resources related to land, including clean air, water, and food. We are organizing our 2020 annual gathering around an online conference sponsored by the Indigenous Values Initiative and American Indian Law Alliance. And it didn’t stop there: allotment, industrialization, and even the creation of the National Park System chipped away at Indian landholdings and sovereignty over the following centuries (Spence, Mark David. The Doctrine of Discovery is the basis for all Indian land law in this country, and it has imposed similar burdens on indigenous peoples all over the world. The conference will happen over 3 Thursdays in August. The Doctrine of Discovery was first articulated in the Supreme Court case Johnson v.McIntosh (1823), which was the first case regarding Native Americans ever heard in the American court. Portugal was encouraged to “invade, capture, vanquish, and subdue all Saracens, pagans, and other enemies of Christ, to put them into perpetual slavery, and to take away all their possessions and property.” [An English translation of this text can be found online. We can also reframe advocacy for public lands, seeing them not just as sites for recreation and preservation of ‘wilderness’, but as places that still rightfully belong to Native Americans. 636 Eye Street, NW This short film is part of 8 short, testimonial films, on the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois.) In 2020 SCOTUS ruled that any time the US Congress can “muster the will” they can disestablish reservation lands and break treaties with Native nations. In the case of the slaughtering to near-extinction of the buffalo, it was an attempt to eliminate a keystone species in order to destroy both the food source and the spirit of whole nations of people. There are so many ways it’s not working, but I don’t know how we change it. Accounts vary as to the exact beginning of the doctrine, but it’s clear that a few papal bulls (essentially letters from … Main Content. This might seem like something we’re already doing, but if you approach our works and our texts from different perspectives, you realize we have a long way to go. ( Log Out /  White settlers broke treaties with Native American nations, drove the buffalo nearly to extirpation, and ripped children from their mothers to be sold as slaves in the service of cotton production. October 20, 2020 | 20.00 ET The Doctrine of Discovery has been at the root of land dispossession across Turtle Island. The “Doctrine of Discovery,” better described as the “Doctrine of Christian Discovery and World Domination,” established the worldview that not only brought devastation to the natural world, but also impaired the ability for human beings to live in proper relationship with the Earth. It allowed massive transfer of land from communal ownership by Indian nations to individual ownership by white colonizers. In 1455, Pope Nicholas V issued Romanus Pontifex, giving Portugal the right to colonize the African Coast. Great article–very thought-provoking. The colonialist Doctrine of Discovery is at the root of unequal distribution in the United States, and for that reason it’s essential that we know about it. I do think that strengthening peoples’ connection to the land is a good step no matter what the economic future holds! As recently as 2005, the US Supreme Court referenced the Doctrine of Discovery in a case regarding indigenous rights and land titles. Ironically, the case didn't even directly involve any Native Americans. The Doctrine of Discovery is a 15 th century Papal Bull – an edict from the Pope – giving Christians the Divine right to conquer the world in the name of the church. Follow The Field to receive notifications of new posts. While English common lands were quickly being enclosed and privatized, the “new” continent became a proving ground in a massive experiment in individual ownership of land. This is the impulse of white supremacy. The Doctrine of Discovery undergirds many of the racist structures throughout the United States, the Global South, as well as across the globe. Robert Miller and Steven Newcomb—Native America, Discovered and Conquered: Thomas Jefferson, Lewis and Clark, and Manifest Destiny and Pagans in the Promised Land: Decoding the Doctrine of Discovery, respectively—have written books about the doctrine from a law perspective, and it figures prominently in Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz’s An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States. How do we do that you ask. You find land; you own it, and the people in it. Thank you! Develop a personal critical consciousness on the issues which are pervaded by the institutionalization of the Doctrine of Discovery from the local-regional, continental-global context. This was the force that launched Columbus and the Conquistadors. Today, profit-driven development encourages sprawl and land degradation. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. We can broaden our concept of who we are working for, and seek collaboration where possible. Accounts vary as to the exact beginning of the doctrine, but it’s clear that a few papal bulls (essentially letters from the Pope) had a critical role in its establishment. There is much yet to be done to heal the centuries-long wound to indigenous people. It just doesn’t fit well in the narrative of rugged individuals conquering an empty wilderness as the Indians ‘died out.’. I feel like we need a whole new system, but I’m certainly not the one to invent it. For instance, think about the fact that much of the U.S. was Mexico before 1848. Terms of Use. The bull itself resides in the National Archives at Lisbon.] This book shines new light on the mostly ignored historical and legal evidence of the use of the Doctrine of Discovery in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. If you’re a plants person, Robin Wall Kimmerer, a botanist and member of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation, beautifully melds indigenous and European concepts of science in her collection of essays called Braiding Sweetgrass. Acting against the doctrine of discovery means nothing less than fundamentally changing the ways in which we have lived and imagined faith during the past 500 years. Doctrine of Discovery—in the name of Christ. Where we have the opportunity to provide site interpretation, we can go beyond the arrowheads and potsherds of ancient history. Event Details. dodmenno.org, Dismantling the Doctrine of Discovery What is the Doctrine of Discovery? Every month during 2020, we will offer reflections on our church’s history and current reality in relationship to Indigenous communities, inviting our churches to consider the current impact of our historical actions. Doctrine of Discovery - CANCELLED at St. George's Anglican Church Events / Community. I would love to talk more. The doctrine holds that these rights apply as against both Indigenous peoples and other European sovereigns. The world is ours. As a set of principles used to justify European colonization, it grew over hundreds of years to become a pillar of international law, and it set the stage for centuries of imperialism worldwide. Then let us hold it up against the Gospel of Jesus Christ and commit to walking that path. You cannot discover lands already inhabited. 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